Influenza Pandemic and its implications to Indonesia's defense system and national secureness
п»їInfluenza Pandemic and its particular implications to Indonesia's immune system and national security 1 . Background
Typically for many years, the concept of security continues to be narrowly described and interpreted as the preservation in the state by physical threats, mainly via external ones. Such narrative remains valid in many countries up until today. Following the cold-war era, the rise of more non-traditional threats, just like terrorism, cultural cleansing, diseases and illegal drugs cause a new concern to global and countrywide security. These types of new dangers have relatively required a large number of nations to redefine all their perspective about national secureness. Globalization in addition has driven the city of nations to recognize the need to reassess the state of affairs in search of tranquility and protection through a more sustainable solution that led to a new and even more inclusive protection paradigm.
In 1994, the United Nations Development Programme (UNPD) issued it is first edition of the Human being Development Record, a newsletter that released a new concept of security, named human protection. 1 The brand new concept efforts to respond to a number of new challenges, primarily on the widened nonmilitary aspects, that are confronted by the most of the planet's population involve that much today.
The scale of dangers posed by a pandemic, such as Influenza, as demonstrated by local outbreaks in the recent years (SARS, bird influenza and last but not least, swine flu), has led the United Nations to frame pandemics as a global threat. More and more governments acknowledge pandemic as being a national secureness issue due to the catastrophic effects. Influenza outbreak, if taken lightly, may become the greatest emergency dangers to the global population.
In the last hundred years, the US National Homeland Reliability Council discovered several major influenza pandemics2 that have resulted in more than twenty million casualties worldwide. A far more detailed history is made readily available by the U. S. Division of Well being & Individual Services with an even higher estimation greater than 50 , 000, 000 casualties globally and many more infected in for least 5 different outbreak cases3 seen (The Spanish Flu in 1918-1919, a flu outbreak in 1957-1958, The HongKong virus pandemic in 1968-1969 and the latest one pertains to the Avian Influenza and its particular strains in 2009-2011). Desk 1 . Total number of affirmed human circumstances for avian influenza (2003-2011)4
The government of Indonesia (GoI) officially reported the initial cases of avian autorevolezza in the country at the beginning of 2004. Since the initially human injury took place in July 2005, investigations could hardly determine how the victim developed the computer virus. Poultry loss of life cases begun to rise in the and this instantly grabbed the attention of the federal government through the issuance of a group of regulations simply by different departments and corporations, namely Komnas FBPI5, Ministry of Overall health (MoH) and Ministry of Agriculture (MoA). As time progressed, human cases related to avian autorevolezza have been discovered in many even more countries, with all the majority of circumstances were due to direct get in touch with between individuals and infected poultry or exposure to contaminated environments. Significant clusters of human cases remain missing, although the risks of human-to-human transmission from the disease cannot be ruled out from some of the cases. Although, widespread human-to-human transmitting is not reported, the risk of a outbreak remains in particular due to the worrying spread of the virus in that short windowpane of time. Since many of the world masse in significant cities happen to be reachable within 24 hours via any spots in the world, the risk of outbreak can inevitably certainly be a reality. 2 . State Defense System and individual security concepts
The objective of Indonesia's national protection policy is usually stated in the Act No . 3/2002, which is to " safeguard and maintain state sovereignty, maintain comarcal integrity in the Unitary Republic of Dalam negri, and ensure the safety of Indonesian...
Bibliography: 1 . Brookings InstitutionвЂ“University of Bern Project on Internal Displacement. (2005). Handling Internal Displacement: A Framework for National Responsibility. Buenos aires DC: The Brookings Establishment.
2 . Homeland Security Council. (May 2006). National Strategy for Pandemic Autorevolezza Implementation Program. Washington.
three or more. Indonesia President Decree No . 7/2006. (2006). Pandemic influenza response coordinating agency of Indonesia. Jakarta.
4. Indonesia's Ministry of Defence. (2007). Buku Strategi Pertahanan negeri [Indonesia's Defence Approach Paper]#@@#@!!. Jakarta: Indonesia's Ministry of Defence.
5. Indonesia's Ministry of Defence. (2007). Grundsatz Pertahanan Negeri [Indonesia's State Defence Doctrine 2007], p. 97. Jakarta: Indonesia's Ministry of Defence.
6th. Indonesia's Ministry of Protection. (2008). Buku Putih Pertahanan Indonesia 2008 [Indonesia's Defence White Paper 2008]. Jakarta: Indonesia's Ministry of Defence.
several. Pandemic Influenza History. (n. d. ). Retrieved Oct 30, 2013, from US Department of Health and Human being Services: http://www.flu.gov/pandemic/history
being unfaithful. Thucydides. (1973). In T. R. Warner, History of the Peloponnesian Warfare (pp. 151вЂ“56 (Bk. 2, 47вЂ“55)). Birmingham: Penguin Books.
10. Un Development Plan. (1994). Human Development Report 1994. New york city: Oxford University Press.
10. United Nations Substantial Commissioner Pertaining to Refugees. (2006). State of the world refugees 2006. Geneva: United Nations High Office For Asile.
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